Drugs and elements

Elements can be used in therapeutics for correcting a deficiency, for example iron, zinc, calcium, selenium, or for their pharmacological effect, magnesium for the treatment of heart rate disorders, lithium for the treatment of bipolar disorders.

A great number of drugs modify the transmembrane exchanges of sodium, potassium and calcium. Those which act on sodium and potassium modify the cellular polarization, those which act on calcium modify cellular polarization and the activity of various enzymes, in particular those involved in muscular contraction.

There are chelating drugs which increase the elimination of toxic elements like lead.

We will study successively the principal elements, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, magnesium, lithium. and the drugs which modify their metabolism or effects.

For each element studied, its metabolism and effects are recalled before explaining how drugs can modify these parameters to lead to therapeutic consequences.

Elements and water
Elements (metals), chemical characteristics explaining biological functions, Water, H2O, Chemical characteristics explaining biological role
Sodium and drugs
Metabolism, Passage of sodium between the cells and the extracellular medium, Biological Effects, Voltage-gated sodium channel antagonists or inhibitors
Potassium and drugs
Metabolism, Biological functions,Drugs and potassium channels, Potassium channel openers, Potassium channels inhibitors or closers
Calcium and drugs
Extracellular calcium - Métabolism, Extracellular calcium - Therapeutic use, Intracellular calcium - Transfers, Intracellular calcium - Role, Calcium - Channel blockers
Strontium and drugs Magnesium and drugs
Magnesium - Effects and use
Hydrogen pump, H+/K+-ATPase, and inhibitors
H+/K+-ATPase pump, Proton pump inhibitors, H+/K+-ATPase inhibitors
NA+/K+-ATPase and inhibitors

Inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase: Cardiac glycosides - Effects, Inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase: Cardiac glycosides - Chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, Cardiac glycosides - Therapeutic use, adverse effects and interactions
Diuretics, Urinary elimination of elements
Renal physiology, Different types of diuretics , Therapeutic uses , Adverse effects
Lithium and drugs
Effects , Pharmacokinetics, Therapeutic uses, Adverse effects
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